A List of over 150 Biases (Belief, decision-making & behavioral, Social, Memory)

Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from the norm and rationality in judgment. They are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.

Although the reality of most of these biases is confirmed by reproducible research, there is often controversy about how to classify these biases, or how to explain them. Gerd Gigerenzer has criticized the classification of cognitive biases as errors of judgment and argues that they should be interpreted as the result of rational deviations from logical reasoning.

Explanations include information-processing rules (i.e., mental shortcuts), called heuristics, that the brain uses to produce decisions or judgments. Biases take a variety of forms and occur as cognitive (“cold”) biases, such as mental noise, or motivational (“hot”) biases, such as when beliefs are distorted by wishful thinking. Both effects can be present simultaneously.

There is also controversy about some of these biases, whether they are considered useless or irrational or lead to good attitudes or behavior. For example, when getting to know other people, people tend to ask suggestive questions to confirm their assumptions about the person. However, this type of confirmation bias has also been cited as an example of social skills to connect with others.

Although most of this research was conducted with human subjects, there are also findings showing bias in non-human animals. For example, loss aversion has been shown in monkeys, and hyperbolic discounting has been observed in rats, pigeons, and monkeys.

The complete list(pdf) can be downloaded here:

A List of over 150 Biases (Belief, decision-making & behavioral , Social, Memory)

Murat Durmus -(Author of the Book: THE AI THOUGHT BOOK)



Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store
Murat Durmus (CEO @AISOMA_AG)

Murat Durmus (CEO @AISOMA_AG)


CEO & Founder @AISOMA_AG | Author | #ArtificialIntelligence | #CEO | #AI | #AIStrategy | #Leadership | #Philosophy | #AIEthics | (views are my own)